Cookbook > Subprocess. Redirection. Interruptions.
Author: Aleksandr Chirkov
Feb. 18, 2014, 1:30 a.m.

Bash is quite useful for work with it from shell because of he has a couple methods which allow you do things easy and fast. Redirection is most useful thing. You use it everytime when work with shell.

Shell allows you redirect output and errors to places which you want, run command with file like stdin  and so on... Let's try a few examples:

 

1. Execute ls command in ordinary mode. Stdout will your shell: 

root@ansible:~# ls -l
total 2036
-rw-r--r--  1 root root    107 Feb  4 16:10 1
drwxrwxrwx  6 dpi  dpi    4096 Nov 24 17:11 ansible
-rw-rw-r--  1 dpi  dpi      25 Jan  9 18:28 bla
drwxrwxr-x  3 dpi  dpi    4096 Feb 14 11:42 bre
-rw-rw-r--  1 dpi  dpi      10 Dec 19 17:02 build.txt
drwxrwxr-x  3 dpi  dpi    4096 Dec 19 17:02 coverage


2. Redirect stdout to foo file: 

root@ansible:~# ls -l > foo


3. Execute wc command with stdin in face foo file

root@ansible:~# wc -l < foo
55


4. Run wc command with foo file like stdin and bla file like stdout 

root@ansible:~# wc -l < foo > bla
root@ansible:~# cat bla
55


5. Use pipe for redirect stdout of ls to stdin of grep: 

root@ansible:~# ls -l | grep pyc
drwxrwxr-x  4 dpi  dpi    4096 Dec 19 17:02 pycharm
drwxrwxr-x 11 dpi  dpi    4096 Jan 16 11:29 pycharmhelper
-rw-rw-r--  1 dpi  dpi  137644 Dec 19 17:02 pyparsing.pyc

 

6. Redirect stdout to null file:

root@ansible:~# ls -l > /dev/null


7. Redirect both stdout and stderr to null file:

root@ansible:~# ls -l non_exist_file > /dev/null 2>&1


8. Redirect stdout of ls to many places:

root@ansible:~# ls -l | tee xxx yyy
total 2036
-rw-r--r--  1 root root    107 Feb  4 16:10 1
drwxrwxrwx  6 dpi  dpi    4096 Nov 24 17:11 ansible
-rw-rw-r--  1 dpi  dpi       3 Feb 14 21:34 bla
drwxrwxr-x  3 dpi  dpi    4096 Feb 14 11:42 bre
-rw-rw-r--  1 dpi  dpi      10 Dec 19 17:02 build.txt
drwxrwxr-x  3 dpi  dpi    4096 Dec 19 17:02 coverage

 

9. Check status code of executed program:

root@ansible:~# echo $?
0

 

And now we'll do it in pythonic way. Let's implement it by Python's standart library subprocess. Step by step we'll cover all above examples:

 

1. Subprocess module has call function wich could just execute command and Popen class wich could more interesting actions:

>>> from  subprocess import Popen, PIPE, call
>>> p = Popen(['ls', 'l'], shell=True)
1                      
ansible                      
bla                      
bre                      
build.txt                  
coverage

>>> call(['ls', '-l'], shell=True)
1                       
ansible                 
bla                      
bre                       
build.txt                   
coverage


>>> p = subprocess.Popen(["ls", "-l"], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
>>> output = p.communicate()[0]
>>> output.split('\n')
Out[48]: 
['total 2044',
 '-rw-r--r--  1 root root    107 Feb  4 16:10 1',
 'drwxrwxrwx  6 dpi  dpi    4096 Nov 24 17:11 ansible',
 '-rw-rw-r--  1 dpi  dpi       3 Feb 14 21:34 bla',
 'drwxrwxr-x  3 dpi  dpi    4096 Feb 14 11:42 bre',
 '-rw-rw-r--  1 dpi  dpi      10 Dec 19 17:02 build.txt',
 'drwxrwxr-x  3 dpi  dpi    4096 Dec 19 17:02 coverage' 
.....

 

2. Let's redirect stdout ti file:

>>> f = open('/home/dpi/example', 'w')
>>> p = subprocess.Popen(["ls", "-l"], stdout=f)
>>> f.close()

 

3. Save stdin like file and execute wc command with this stdin: 

>>> f = open('/home/dpi/example', 'r')
>>> p = subprocess.Popen(["wc", "-l"], stdin=f)
55
>>> f.close()

 

4. Redirect stdout and stdin to one same place:

>>> fw = open('/home/dpi/writefile', 'w')
>>> fr = open('/home/dpi/example', 'r')
>>> p = subprocess.Popen(["wc", "-l"], stdin=fr, stdout=fw)
>>> for i in fw, fr:
           i.close()
>>> with open('/home/dpi/writefile', 'r') as f:
           print f.readline()

55

 

5. Pipe stdout of ls to stdin of grep

>>> ls = subprocess.Popen(["ls", "-l"], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
>>> grep = subprocess.Popen(["grep", "pyc"], stdin=ls.stdout)
drwxrwxr-x  4 dpi  dpi    4096 Dec 19 17:02 pycharm
drwxrwxr-x 11 dpi  dpi    4096 Jan 16 11:29 pycharmhelper
-rw-rw-r--  1 dpi  dpi  137644 Dec 19 17:02 pyparsing.pyc

 

6. Redirect stdout to null file:

>>> f = open('/dev/null', 'w')
>>> ls = subprocess.Popen(["ls", "-l"], stdout=f)
>>> ls.communicate()
Out[78]: (None, None)
>>> f.close()

 

7. Redirect both stdout and stderr  to null file

>>> f = open('/dev/null', 'w')
>>> ls = subprocess.Popen(["ls", "-l", "/home/dpi/non_exist_file"], stdout=f, stderr=f)
>>> ls.communicate()
Out[85]: (None, None)
>>> f.close()

 

>>> f = open('/dev/null', 'w')
>>> ls = subprocess.Popen(["ls", "-l", "/home/dpi/non_exist_file"], stdout=f, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
>>> ls.communicate()
Out[90]: (None, None)
>>> f.close()

 

8. Multiplay redirection:

>>> f1 = open('/home/dpi/ggg', 'w')
>>> f2 = open('/home/dpi/hhh', 'w')
>>> ls = subprocess.Popen(["ls", "-l"], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
>>> output = ls.communicate()[0]
>>> output = output.split('\n')
try:
    for i in output:
        for f in f1,f2:
            f.write(i + '\n')
except:
    pass
finally:           
    for i in f1,f2:
        i.close()

 

9. Check status code:

>>> subprocess.check_output("exit 1", shell=True)
Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
subprocess.CalledProcessError: Command 'exit 1' returned non-zero exit status 1


>>> subprocess.check_call(["ls", "-l"])
0


>>> ls = subprocess.Popen(["ls", "-l"], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
>>> output = ls.communicate()
>>> ls.returncode
0


>>> find = subprocess.Popen(["find", "/", "-name", "bla"])
find: `/sys/kernel/debug': Permission denied
find: `/root': Permission denied
find: `/proc/tty/driver': Permission denied
.................

>>> find.poll()
Out[5]: 1

 

There are a couple interesing methods in subprocess module. You could check it yourself in official docs. It was first entry to processing in Python.

I'll keep to cover this not simple theme in another topics, we'll try multithreading, multiprocessing, signals and so on.

See you. 

pipe
python
subprocess
signals
redirection

In the third example (Save stdin like file and execute wc command with this stdin) it seems that you forgot to set writefile as stdout for wc -l command. Am I right?

In "8. Multiplay redirection:" you have no exception handler. I think it won't work like that..

As for 3th example, stdout redirect to file is not needed. And about 8th, try construction works without except if there is finally keyword. It is not useful because there may be exception...but anyway  finally block will do closing file.

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