AST class in Python has nice function literal_eval.  literal_eval safely evaluate an encoded string containing a Python expression. The string provided may only consist of the following Python literal structures: strings, numbers, tuples, lists, dicts, booleans, and None. import ast >>> ast.literal_eval("{'muffin' : 'lolz', 'foo' : 'kitty'}") {'muffin': 'lolz', 'foo': 'kitty'}
Published ago by ochirkov

There is useful __getattr__ built-in func to handle missing arguments. Dive into example: class foo: def __init__(self): self.a = "a" def __getattr__(self, attribute): return "You asked for %s, but I'm giving you default" % attribute >>> bar = foo() >>> bar.a 'a' >>> bar.b "You asked for b, but I'm giving you default" >>> getattr(bar, "a") 'a' >>> getattr(bar, "b") "You asked for b, but I'm giving you default"
Published ago by ochirkov

With type func you can check data type of variable: a = 10 b = [1,2,3] type(a) == int True type(b) == list True type(a) == float False   Same effect you can get with isinstance func: isinstance(a,int) True isinstance(b,list) True isinstance(b,tuple) False c = (4,5,6) isinstance(c,tuple) True   But, isinstance also give you possibility to check data type of your var from tuple with datatypes: isinstance(a,(float, int, str)) True isinstance(a,(list, tuple, dict)) False    
Published ago by ochirkov

Lets make some short examples of most interesting built-in python functions.   1. all(iterable) Return True if all elements of the iterable are true. >>> lst = range(10) >>> all( type(i) is int for i in lst ) True >>> lst = [1,1,2,[]] >>> all( i for i in lst ) False >>> lst.append('steve') all( type(i) is int for i in lst ) False   2. any(iterable) Return True if any element of the iterable is true. If the iterable is empty, return False.  >>> lst = [1, 2, 3, -7] >>> any(lst) True >>> a = 15 >>&...
Published ago by ochirkov

23. isinstance(object, classinfo) Return true if the object argument is an instance of the classinfo argument, or of a (direct, indirect or virtual) subclass thereof. Also return true ifclassinfo is a type object (new-style class) and object is an object of that type or of a (direct, indirect or virtual) subclass thereof. >>> isinstance(Foo(), Foo) True >>> lst = [] >>> isinstance(lst, list) True >>> isinstance(lst,(list, tuple)) True   24. issubclass(class, classinfo) Return true if class is a subclass (direct, indirect or virtual) of classi...
Published ago by ochirkov

42. sorted(iterable[, cmp[, key[, reverse]]]) Return a new sorted list from the items in iterable. >>> sorted([5, 2, 3, 1, 4]) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] >>> a = [5, 2, 3, 1, 4] >>> a.sort() >>> a [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]   >>> sorted("This is a test string from Andrew".split(), key=str.lower) ['a', 'Andrew', 'from', 'is', 'string', 'test', 'This']   >>> student_tuples = [ ('john', 'A', 15), ('jane', 'B', 12), ('dave', 'B', 10), ] >>> sorted(stude...
Published ago by ochirkov

In this article I'd like to describe the difference between three built-in methods: globals(), locals() and vars() (original link). Also I'd like to show some examples of their usage. So, globals() always returns the dictionary of the module namespace locals() always returns a dictionary of the current namespace vars() returns either a dictionary of the current namespace (if called with no argument) or the dictionary of the argument Let's see an example of theese functions in different namespaces. I have the module with following content: class A(): def __init__(self, id): = id print "Class locals:\t%s" ...

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